Call for Submissions: Bulawan Literary Zine of Northern Mindanao Issue 4: ‘Mental Disorders’

Bulawan, a literary journal of new Northern Mindanaoan writings, is now open for contributions to its fourth regular issue themed ‘Mental Disorders’. Bulawan’s editors are looking for poems, short stories, flash fiction/nonfiction, creative nonfiction, one-act plays, screenplays, full-length play excerpts, novel chapters, critical essays, book reviews, and visual artworks that discuss psychiatric/psychological disorders—anxiety disorders, eating disorders, mood disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and substance use disorders.

The issue’s impetus, aside from the ending of stigma and inspiring recovery and awareness, is to pose intellectual inquiries vis-à-vis representations and explore ways in which mental disorders are depicted in contemporary regional, decolonial , and indigenous writings. The editors are also interested in the following topics: (1) the depictions of mental disorders in literature, (2) mental disorder as metaphor for political protest against conformity to the status quo, (3) intersections of mental disorders with identity politics (race/ethnicity, socioeconomic class, physical disability, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression), (4) mental disorders in confessional poetry, gothic fiction, or nonfiction narratives, among others.

The publication seeks contributions from emerging and established writers who (1) are born/based in Northern Mindanao and (2) are Filipino citizens residing in the country (outside the Northern Mindanao) or abroad whose works are about/related to or set in the region. Submissions should be original and previously unpublished works in Binisaya, Tagalog, English, or a combination of these three languages. Submit works in either of the following: 1 to 3 poems (not more than 60 lines each); 1 one-act play, screenplay, or an excerpt of a full-length play (up to 30 pages); 1 flash fiction/nonfiction (500 to 1000 words); 1 short story or creative nonfiction (2000 to 5000 words); or 1 novel chapter (3000 to 6000 words) with a synopsis of the novel. Critical essays (2000 to 5000 words) that problematize the the intersection of literature and mental disorders, and book reviews (1000 to 25000 words) of theme-relevant works by Northern Mindanao authors are also welcome. Visual artworks—paintings, illustrations, graphic design, digital photography, and typography—relevant to the theme may also be submitted.

Send manuscripts (font size 12 in Arial, Courier New, or Times New Roman in DOC/DOCX format) and artworks (JPEG/PNG format) as email attachment to nagmac.submissions@gmail.com, together with a cover letter indicating the author’s full name, contact information, and a short bionote (300 to 400 words). Subject line must be “Bulawan_Genre_Title” (example: Bulawan_Flash Nonfiction_Debris). Submissions that do not follow the prescribed format will not be considered. Deadline of submission is until 31 March 2018, 11:59 PM. Issue 4 will be launched on June 2018.

Inquiries and orders of previous issues may be addressed to NAGMAC’s official email nagmac.submissions@gmail.com or Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/cdopoetrynight.

Forum Kritika on Food Transformations: Eating and Wasting in the Anthropocene (extended to Dec. 31, 2017)

Food in the 21st century would be unrecognizable to our great grandparents. Canadian ecocritic Susie O’Brien has recently explained in an interview in ARIEL that “food is a rich site through which to think about a number of things: environment, colonialism, culture, affect, subjectivity, among others.” There is an urgency to theorizing about food, especially given the fact that hunger is seriously at odds with the promises of industrial agriculture. Indeed, according to Vandana Shiva, “industrial agriculture has not produced more food. It has destroyed diverse sources of food, and it has stolen food from other species to bring larger quantities of specific commodities to the market, using huge quantities of fossil fuels and water and toxic chemicals in the process.”

One of the four main impacts of contemporary industrial livestock that Tony Weis explores in The Ecological Hoofprint (2013) is environmental. Within this category of environmental impacts are subcategories including climate change, water use and pollution, biodiversity loss, energy wastage, the increase of antibiotic resistance among bacteria (and the subsequent creation of “superbugs”), and genetic pollution. There is no question, as Greta Gaard has recently observed, that “the ecological and human toll of industrialized human agriculture is no longer debated.” Yet, debates do rage about what exactly constitutes the Anthropocene, when it began, how it is sustained, what its philosophical and ethical contours and implications are, what conceptual tools it enables or disables, what it means to “think scale in cultural theory” (to borrow a phrase from Derek Woods), and so on.

What the Forum Kritika on Food Transformations seeks are theoretical understandings of literary food within the context of 21st century topics surrounding food. In particular, this Forum Kritika is interested in addressing several questions:

— How can we discuss from literary works the ways in which the practices of corporate capitalism and the pursuit of profit in the American food industry are neither viable nor productive of sustainable food sources, and how do we gauge and discuss the impacts of these practices on the Global South?

— What are the relationship between ecophobia, food, and rampant nationalism, and how are the cultural and national identities that cohere in food systems under threat when those food systems are dismantled?

— How can we theorize about the waste associated with food production, and how do these theoretical understandings cohere within the context of current debates about the definitional reach of the term Anthropocene?

— How can we theorize about relationships between food justice and environmental justice? What are the impacts of transnational food systems on the Global South?

— How important are matters about artificial food-like substances, GMOs, and synthetic hormones?  And why?

— What can we gain from literary investigations of food in novels including but not limited to Ruth Ozeki’s My Year of Meats or All Over Creation; Paolo Bacigalupi’s The Windup Girl; Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake, The Edible Woman, Lady Oracle, or The Handmaid’s Tale; Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation; and so on?

Submission guidelines

Please send essays in the form of a Word document attachment to Dr. Simon C. Estok (estok@skku.edu; cc: kk.soh@ateneo.edu; subject: Food Transformations) by Dec. 31, 2017. Submissions should contain 7,000 to 8,000 words; include an abstract (200 to 250 words) and keywords (5 to7; should not be repeated in abstract and title). Kritika Kultura’s anonymous peer-review process requires that the electronic version of the essay contain no information that would identify the author. An author bio (100 to 150 words) should be included as a separate electronic file with the submission.

Papers will undergo a double blind peer review by specialists in the field; evaluation period of papers will be from Jan. to May 2018. Revisions of accepted essays will be due by May 15, 2018, with a final copy due date of June 15, 2018. The Forum Kritika on Food Transformations will be published in Aug. 2018.

About Kritika Kultura

Kritika Kultura is acknowledged by a host of Asian and Asian American Studies libraries and scholarly networks, and indexed in the MLA International Bibliography, Thomson Reuters (ISI), Scopus, EBSCO, and the Directory of Open Access Journals. For inquiries about submission guidelines and future events, visit http://journals.ateneo.edu/ojs/kk/ or email kk.soh@ateneo.edu

Call for Visayan and Mindanaoan Writers: “Payag Habagatan: New Writings from the South”

Payag Habagatan or “the Southern Hut”, an inaugural literary home for emerging voices from the southern Philippines, is now accepting works of poetry, fiction, creative nonfiction, drama, and critical essay in English and/or in Binisaya languages that speak of a ‘sense of place and placelessness.’

To qualify, contributor must be a writer born and/or based in the Visayas and Mindanao.

This online and free-access literary journal comes from the necessity to (1) serve as a critical, counter-canonical platform to the hegemony of mainstream gatekeeping institutions, (2) assert multifaceted constructs of identity in the literatures from the southern Philippines, and (3) abolish center-periphery orientations in the “national” literary landscape.

Submissions, either previously published or unpublished, may be any of the following:

  • Poetry: 1 poem (not more than 70 lines each);
  • Fiction: 1 flash fiction (500-1000 words); or 1 short story (2500-4000 words); or 1 novel chapter (4000-6000 words) with a novel synopsis;
  • Essay and creative nonfiction: 1 flash nonfiction/suite of micro-essays (500-1000 words); or 1 creative nonfiction such as personal essay, travel writing, nonfiction memoir, literary journalism, or lyrical reportage (2500-4000 words);
  • Drama: 1 one-act play (25 to 40 pages); a 10-minute screenplay; or an excerpt of a full-length play;
  • Critical essay about works about and/or writers from the Visayas and Mindanao (1500-4000 words in the MLA format).

All submissions should be in Georgia font size 12, double spaced, in MS Word format. For previously published works, indicate publications where these have appeared. Copyright of the works remains with the authors. Send manuscripts as email attachments to payaghabagatan@gmail.com together with the author’s full name, email address, mobile number, home address, and a short bionote in the email’s body.

Announcements such as book launchings, local author talks, manuscripts call for publications and workshops, and other literary events to be held in Visayas and Mindanao are also welcome. Submissions are welcome all throughout the year. Inquiries may be directed to the email address above or through the official Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/payaghabagatan.

The editors of the online literary journal are writers from the Libulan Queer Collective—poet-essayist Alton Melvar Dapanas and fictionist-playwright R Joseph Dazo.

Ambag-Limbag para sa ANI 40 ng CCP

Ang Intertextual Division ng Cultural Center of the Philippines ay tumatanggap na ng mga ambag para sa ANI 40 na may temang Katutubo.

Ang volume na ilulunsad sa buwan ng Setyembre sa susunod na taon ay maglalaman ng mga sanaysay, tula, maiikling kuwento at iba pang genre tampok ang paninindigan ng mga Filipino sa lupang kanilang pinagmulan.

Ating kinikilala ang mga Katutubo bilang mga Filipino na patuloy pa ring isinasabuhay ang sinaunang kultura at tradisyon bago pa man tayo sakupin ng mga banyaga. Ito ang ideya natin ng Katutubo, ang sinuman at anuman na may kinalaman sa “purong” kultura at tradisyon. Dahil dito ay bihira nating mapagtanto na ang katutubo ay sumasailalim din sa ebolusyon. Ngayon ay hindi na lamang ito limitado sa mga Filipino na lumaki at nagsasabuhay pa rin ng sinaunang kultura at tradisyon, kabilang na rin dito ang sinumang Filipino na yumayabong ang pagkatao sa paulit-ulit na pagtindig para sa pinagmulang lupa.

Ang mga akda ay maaaring nasa wikang Filipino, Ingles o kahit anong wika mula sa iba’t ibang bahagi ng Filipinas, basta at mayroon itong salin sa Filipino o Ingles.

Ang mga akda ay dapat naka-type, double-spaced sa 81/2” x 11” na papel, gamit ang Arial or Roman 12 points, na may kasamang TIN (tax identification number) at bionote ng may-akda na binubuo ng limang pangungusap.

Ipadala ang inyong mga gawa sa anijournal@yahoo.com. Ang deadline ng pagsusumite ay sa ika-31 ng Disyembre, 2017.

Para sa karagdagang impormasyon, makipag-ugnayan kay Sam Ramos o kay Marjorie Almazan sa  551-5959 o sa 0919-3175708 o sa  email na anijournal@yahoo.com.

Panawagan para sa mga Papel: Trending Pinoy: Interogasyon ng New Media sa Pilipinas

Layunin ng proyekto na kumalap ng mga kritikal na sanaysay na magtatampok at magpapakilala ng kulturang new media sa Pilipinas. Sa pag-usbong ng bagong media na may imahen ng malayang paglahok, mahalagang matimbang ang integridad ng Pilipino bilang hybrid na tagatanggap at tagabuo ng kanyang realidad sa tulong ng mga bagong anyo ng pamamahayag.  Nais ng patnugutang makalikom ng mga papel na hihimay sa konsepto ng Pilipinong fan, interactivity at interconnectivity, hypertext, kakaibang gamit ng new media, formasyon ng identidad, komunidad at globalidad ng Pilipinas.

Inaasahang makakatipon ang proyekto ng mga pag-aaral kaugnay sa paggamit ng mga Pilipino sa mga bagong anyo ng media at mga negosasyon hinggil dito, kasama ang kapwa mapanupil at mapagpalayang potensyal nito.  Mula sa mga murang promo sa Internet para sa mga nagmumura ring smartphone, downloadable apps at videogames, integrasyon ng new media sa mga batayang serbisyo gaya ng Uber at Grabcar para sa pangmasang transportasyon, paggawa ng memes at viral campaigns, cosplaying at mga fan convention sa Pilipinas, paghahanap ng mga bakas ng panitikan at pagtatanghal sa mga espasyong birtuwal gaya ng fake news sites at troll accounts.

Nais ng proyektong Trending Pinoy na maimapa ang mga umiiral na tunggalian sa pagragasa ng napakaraming bagong daluyan ng impormasyon, patungo sa mas kritikal at responsableng hinaharap.

Ang ilang mungkahing tema ay ang mga sumusunod:

  • bagong media at neoliberalismo sa bansa
  • bagong media at fan cultures
  • bagong media at formasyon ng identidad
  • bagong media at formasyon ng bansa
  • bagong media at formasyon ng globalidad
  • regulasyon ng bagong media at biopolitics
  • Cybercrime Law at pagpulisya sa bagong media
  • bagong media at ang sirkulasyon ng affect
  • bagong media at sexual na pagkamamamayan
  • bagong media at mga anyo ng naratibo
  • viral videos at spektakularisasyon ng sandali
  • Hitler parody videos at kritika ng lipunan at kasaysayan
  • bagong media at ang artikulasyon ng protesta
  • bagong media at peryodismo
  • bagong media at ang produksyon ng pambansang alaala
  • bagong media at ang pagmamapa ng pampublikong ispero
  • governmentality at bagong media
  • bagong media at pananampalataya
  • etikal na pagkamamamayan sa panahon ng bagong media
  • bagong media at kulturang popular

Ipadala ang abstrak (150-300 salita, Ingles o Filipino) ng papel sa

roland.tolentino@gmail.com, vlad.gonzales@gmail.com, at lmcastillo07@gmail.com. Ang deadline ng abstrak ay ika-31 ng Oktubre, 2017.

Ang deadline ng pagsusumite ng buong manuskrito ay ika-31 Enero 2018. Ang manuskrito ay maaaring nakasulat sa Ingles o Filipino at may habang 10-20 pahina (double-spaced, Times New Roman 12, MLA formatting).

Mga Editor: Rolando B. Tolentino, Vladimeir B. Gonzales at Laurence Marvin S. Castillo

Contributors to Libulan Binisaya Anthology of Queer Literature’s Volume 1 Announced

The Libulan Queer Collective is pleased to announce the list of contributors for the first volume of ‘Libulan Binisaya Anthology of Queer Literature.’ For the first volume, established and emerging writers from Visayas and Mindanao who identify themselves as lesbians, gays, bisexual, transgender, and straight allies have contributed. This seminal (or hymenal) anthology of queer writings features poets, essayists, fictionists, and playwrights who write in (or whose works were translated to) the Binisaya language. Libulan queer anthology will be published by mid-2018 by a local press. Schedules and sites of book launchings with parallel discussions on queer writings from the southern Philippines will be announced very soon. Inquiries may be directed to libulanqueercollective@gmail.com or www.facebook.com/payaghabagatan.

Ika-2 Panawagan para sa Kontribusyon sa Disaster: Pinoy Scifi

Sasabog, gugunaw, matutunaw, maglalaho ang Pilipinas

Bakit may engganyo ang imahen ng sakuna at kalamidad? Mas malaki at mas malala, mas kaakit-akit. Panukala ni Rozarion (2007) na nabubuhay tayo sa isang ‘kultura ng kalamidad’—hinuhugot mula sa ating existential anxiety na hindi maiiwasan at nalalapit ang ating pagwawakas. Giit ni Sontag (1966), sa pagtalakay niya sa pag imahen ng disaster sa mga pelikulang science fiction, na ganap na pinalaki ng modernong historikal na realidad ang pagharaya natin sa disaster at dagdag pa niya na ang mga bida sa mga naturang kuwento ay tila hindi na tunay na mapagkakatiwalaan (p. 215). Interesante.

Layon ng bubuuing koleksisyon ng maikling kuwentong scifi na itampok ang potensiyal ng mga kuwento ng disaster na paglimian ang relasyon ng tao sa mas malawak na espasyo ng pag-iral nito. Sa kasalukuyang lagay ng mga bagay-bagay sa mundo, ang paglilimi sa mga kalamidad at sakuna ay isang napapanahong paksa. Lalo sa Pilipinas na ang pagtanggap, pagpapakahulugan, at pagtugon sa mga disaster—natural man o likhang tao—ay nagpapamalas ng pagsasalimbayan ng mga diskurso ng sekularidad at relihiyon, agham, at espirituwalidad, katotohanan at kathang-isip, at tradisyon at modernidad. Layon din ng koleksiyon na patunayang ang science fiction ay siyang pinakamabisang anyo ng kuwento na makapanghahawak ng pilosopikal, etikal, moral, pulitikal, at estetikong pagtatangka sa pag-imahen sa disaster hindi lamang bilang isang empirikal na pangyayari ngunit kultural na usapin.

Ipadala ang inyong orihinal na maikling kuwento (hindi pa naililimbag o inaasahang ilimbag) kina Alwin C. Aguirre at U Z. Eliserio sa email address na disasterscifi@gmail.com hanggang o bago 30 Oktubre 2017 para sa inaasahang pagbuo ng koleksiyon ngayong taon. Ipadala ito bilang attachment (.doc, .docx, .rtf). Bagamat walang mahigpit na patakaran sa haba ng mga akda, inaasahang ang bilang ng salita ay sa pagitan ng 2,000-15,000. Maaaring magpadala ng maikling pagpapakilala sa sarili (di hihigit sa 200 na salita). Huwag mag-atubiling magtanong o humingi ng karagdagang impormasyon. Ang koleksiyon ay nasa Filipino.

Rozario, K. (2007). The culture of calamity: disaster and the making of modern America. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press.
Sontag, S. (1966). Against interpretation and other essays. New York, NY: Picador.

Call for Submissions: Volume 2, Issue 1: Special Issue on the Moros and the Indigenous Peoples Bukambibig Poetry Folio of Spoken Word Philippines

Bukambibig Poetry Folio of Spoken Word Philippines, a multilingual, free-access, and digital folio of performance poetry, is now open for contributions to its second volume’s first issue which is a special issue on the Moros and the Indigenous Peoples (IPs).

The folio is looking for performance poems and/or spoken word pieces that discuss and/or problematize the relevant econo-ethnic conditions of the IPs and the Moros—a spectrum of human rights violations, denial of area sovereignty and self-determination, resistance to land occupation and cultural erasure, critiques of institutional discrimination, militarization of IP and Moro communities, Christian settler colonialism, politics of identity representation that is diluted and domesticated by nation-state and imperialist-capitalist imperatives, among others.

Bukambibig seeks contributions from Filipino poets who reside in the country or abroad. Entries should be composed of two to three poems (not more than 70 lines each) meant for performance and written in Bikol, Binisaya, English, Hiligaynon & Kinaray-a, Ilokano, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waray. (A poem written in a local language other than Tagalog must have a three-sentence synopsis in English.)

For this issue, spoken word pieces written in the languages of the Indigenous Peoples (e.g. the Suludnon of the Panay-Bukidnon in Western Visayas, the Mag-indi of the Aetas in Northern Luzon, the Binukid of the some Lumad groups of Mindanao, etc.) and Moros (e.g. Meranao, Maguindanao, Tausug, etc.) are also welcome, with accompanying translation to the major languages mentioned above.

Submissions must be original, unpublished, and not submitted concurrently for publication elsewhere. Performance poems should be written as one document, single-spaced in Garamond font 12 (in MS Word format). The name of the author shall not appear in any of the pages. On the email’s body, write the author’s name, mobile number, email address, and a short bionote (in the third person). The bionote (150-200 words) may include the author’s location in the Philippines or anywhere in the world, academic background, and if applicable, current professional work, writers group affiliations, publication history, and writing fellowships attended.

All entries must be submitted before 11:59 PM on 15 February 2018 to spokenwordph.poetryfolio@gmail.com with the email subject: Language(s)_Last Name_First Name_MI (example: Binisaya_Dela Cruz_Juan Carlos_P).

The general editor of the folio is poet, essayist, and activist Alton Melvar Dapanas. Literary and cultural studies scholar and critic Dr Rolando Tolentino of the University of the Philippines-Diliman will write this issue’s critical introduction. Higaonon poet-novelist Telesforo S Sungkit, Jr will serve as the issue consultant. The editorial board is composed of renowned poets Jose Jason L Chancoco (Bikol editor), Cindy A Velasquez (Binisaya editor), April Mae M Berza (English editor), Jesus C Insilada (Hiligaynon & Kinaray-a editor), Roy V Aragon (Ilokano editor), Mark Anthony B Austria (Pangasinan editor), Joel Donato C Jacob (Tagalog editor), and Aivee C Badulid (Waray editor).

For updates, follow Bukambibig on Facebook, facebook.com/BukambibigPH, and Twitter, twitter.com/BukambibigPH. Read previous issues here: https://issuu.com/bukambibigph.

Kritika Kultura Launches Issue 29 (resched)

Kritika Kultura, the international refereed journal of language, literary, and cultural studies of the Department of English, Ateneo de Manila University, is rescheduling the launch of its 29th issue to Oct. 5, 2017, 5:00 p.m. to 6:30 p.m., at Faura AVR, Ateneo de Manila University. The launch, followed by a simple reception, is open to the public.

KK 29 features essays by Adam Lifshey on the intersections of American empire and American feminism via literature by Filipinas in Spanish; Ricardo G. Abad on how theater, particularly the Five Arts Centre of Malaysia, interrogates a nation that preaches racial harmony, on the one hand, yet practices racial inequality, on the other; Laurence Marvin Castillo on the development of the giant monster genre in film in relation to postwar geopolitics; Paulus Sarwoto on the literary representation of GestapuGestok or G 30 S PKI in Indonesia through the works of vernacular writer, Umar Kayam; and Mark John Sanchez on local and international political issues within Philippine based grassroots opposition to the Marcos dictatorship.

The Forum Kritika on “The Globalization and Localization of Hallyu” is guest edited by Ingyu Oh. The section features an introduction to the essays by Oh. Essays in the forum are: Wonho Jang and Jung Eun Song’s take on the potential of the webtoon as new Korean wave in the process of glocalization; Ute Fendler on Hip-Hop from South Korea; Paolo Laforgia and Keith Howard’s reading of K-Idol, Amber Liu’s contribution in the changing of the feminine ideal in the K-Pop world; Ingyu Oh’s take on the Hallyu Fandom in Indonesia (with reference to Palestine); Suwan Kim on the new Korean Wave in the Middle East and its influence in Medical Tourism in Korea; Weibo Ye and Sou Hwan Kang on the survival of SM Entertainment in the Chinese market; Hee-chul Sim, Soel-ah Kim and Byung-min Lee on the K-Pop Strategy from the view point of cultural hybridity and the tradition of Gwangdae and Ki-Duk Kim and Sang-Joon Bae on Hallyu and Korea’s traditional culture.

The Monograph Section features Joseph Ching Velasco’s reading of Charlson Ong’s speculative fiction and Christian Jil Benitez’s preliminary dalumat (deconstruction) of the notion of bayan.

The Literary Section features authors whose works open new possibilities in literary form and approach. The contributors in the literary section are Gabriela Lee and Gabrielle Leung.

Kritika Kultura is acknowledged by a host of Asian and Asian American Studies libraries and scholarly networks, and indexed in the MLA International Bibliography, Thomson Reuters (ISI), Scopus, EBSCO, and the Directory of Open Access Journals. For inquiries about submission guidelines and future events, visit http://journals.ateneo.edu/ojs/kk/ or email kk.soh@ateneo.edu.

Call for Submissions: HALAD: Mindanao Harvest for the 21st Century

‘HALAD: Mindanao Harvest for the 21st Century’, a literary anthology, is now accepting poems, short stories, creative nonfiction/essays, and one-act plays in English, Filipino, and Binisaya written by established and emerging writers born and/or based in Mindanao.

This anthology aims to gather in one book some of the best new Mindanao writings for possible use by high school and college teachers handling 21st Century Philippine Literatures from the Region.

The editors prefer recent works (from 2000 to the present) with a thematic grounding on Mindanaoan realities—ethnopolitical issues, culture, geography, and history. Submissions, either previously published (provide details for acknowledgment purposes) or unpublished, may be any of the following:

(1) Poetry—4 poems (not more than 80 lines each); or
(2) Fiction—2 short stories (2000 to 5000 words each);
(3) CNF/Essay—2 creative nonfiction/essays (2000 to 5000 words each); or
(4) Play—1 one-act play (15 to 25 pages).

Send manuscripts as email attachments doc. file to mindanaoliteraryanthology@gmail.com together with a cover letter indicating author’s full name, 2×2 photo, mobile number, email address, home address, and a short bio note (200 to 400 words). Inquiries may be directed to the email address indicated above. Deadline of submissions is on 15 December 2017. Successful contributors will receive a complimentary copy of the book upon publication.

The editors of the anthology are Ricardo M. de Ungria, Jaime An Lim, and Christine Godinez-Ortega.